By Alan Siaroff

ISBN-10: 0203900308

ISBN-13: 9780203900307

ISBN-10: 081532930X

ISBN-13: 9780815329305

This ebook presents a complete research of the social gathering platforms of the entire continent of Europe. This paintings additionally contains case stories of the Baltic States and Balkan democracies and is going as a long way east as Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, and Turkey.

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3 percent). 1 percent across three elections). EFRG—Electoral Fragmentation. 427), squaring this value, and summing these 27 28 Comparative European Party Systems values for all parties. Independents are ignored. The figure obtained is then subtracted from 1 to produce the figure for electoral fragmentation. Consequently, the higher the value, the more fragmented electorally the elections. 496 each time). 928). PFRG—Parliamentary Fragmentation. This figure is obtained in the same way as EFRG, except that the percentage of filled seats won is used instead of percentage of votes.

In Italy there is now a regional party, the Northern League, based essentially on regional economic differences. The support for regional or ethnic parties tends to cut across class lines, but usually they are moderately conservative on left-right issues (as in Belgium [Flanders], Finland, Hungary, Romania, and Spain). In the United Kingdom, however, the Scottish and Welsh nationalists are left of center. Right-wing extremist parties are certainly not new; witness the fascist and Nazi parties of interwar Europe.

This is the total percentage of votes cast for parties that did not receive any parliamentary representation. In electoral systems with various “parts” (that is, single member and proportional seats, or multitiered districts), it is sufficient to achieve representation somewhere to be excluded from the value. That is, wasted votes only measure the votes for parties who did not receive any seats in any way. Of course, a given party may not have received a “fair” number of seats, but that is assessed by DISP.

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Comparative European Party Systems: An Analysis of Parliamentary Elections Since 1945 by Alan Siaroff

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